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Schizophrenia References

Scott D. Olson, ND

Omega-3 Fatty Acids (FISH OILS)

Horrobin DF. The relationship between schizophrenia and essential fatty acid and eicosanoid metabolism. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1992;46:71–7 .

Horrobin DF. Schizophrenia as a membrane lipid disorder which is expressed throughout the body. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1996;55:3–7 .

Warner R, Laugharne J, Peet M, et al. Retinal function as a marker for cell membrane omega-3 fatty acid depletion in schizophrenia: a pilot study. Biol Psychiatry 1999;45:1138–42.

Mahadik SP, Mukherjee S, Horrobin DF, et al. Plasma membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition of cultured skin fibroblasts from schizophrenic patients: comparison with bipolar patients and normal subjects. Psychiatry Res 1996;63:133–42.

Vaddadi KS, Gilleard CJ, Soosai E, et al. Schizophrenia, tardive dyskinesia and essential fatty acids. Schizophr Res 1996;20:287–94.

Peet M, Laugharne J, Rangarajan N, et al. Depleted red cell membrane essential fatty acids in drug-treated schizophrenic patients. J Psychiatr Res 1995;29:227–32.

Rudin DO. The major psychoses and neuroses as omega-3 essential fatty acid deficiency syndrome: substrate pellagra. Biol Psychiatry 1981;16:837–50.

Puri BK, Richardson AJ, Horrobin DF, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid treatment in schizophrenia associated with symptom remission, normalisation of blood fatty acids, reduced neuronal membrane phospholipid turnover and structural brain changes. Int J Clin Pract 2000;54:57–63.

Peet M, Laugharne JD, Mellor J, Ramchand CN. Essential fatty acid deficiency in erythrocyte membranes from chronic schizophrenic patients, and the clinical effects of dietary supplementation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1996;55:71–5.

Laugharne JD, Mellor JE, Peet M. Fatty acids and schizophrenia. Lipids 1996;31 Suppl:S163–5.

Fenton WS, Dickerson F, Boronow J, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid (ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) supplementation for residual symptoms and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158:2071–4.

Mellor JE, Laugharne JDE, Peet M. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in schizophrenic patients. Hum Psychopharmacol 1996;11:39–46.

Shah S, Ramchand CN, Peet M. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as an adjunct to neuroleptic therapy in the treatment of schizophrenia. Presented at the 9th Schizophrenia Winter Workshop, Davos, Switzerland, February 7–13, 1998.

Mellor JE, Peet M. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, trial of omega-3 fatty acids as an adjunct to the treatment of schizophrenia. Presented at the 9th Schizophrenia Winter Workshop, Davos, Switzerland, February 7–13, 1998.

Joy CB, Mumby-Croft R, Joy LA. Fatty acid supplementation for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jul 19;3:CD001257.



Heresco-Levy U, Javitt DC. Comparative effects of glycine and D-cycloserine on persistent negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a retrospective analysis. Schizophr Res. 2004 Feb 1;66(2-3):89-96.

Tuominen HJ, Tiihonen J, Wahlbeck K. Glutamatergic drugs for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD003730.

Tuominen HJ, Tiihonen J, Wahlbeck K.          Glutamatergic drugs for schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Res. 2005 Jan 1;72(2-3):225-34.

Waziri R. Glycine therapy of schizophrenia: Some caveats. Biol Psychiatry 1996;39:155–6.

Heresco-Levy U, Javitt DC, Ermilov M, et al. Efficacy of high-dose glycine in the treatment of enduring negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999;56:29–36.

Evins AE, Fitzgerald SM, Wine L, et al. Placebo-controlled trial of glycine added to clozapine in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:826–8.

Potkin SG, Jin Y, Bunney BG, et al. Effect of clozapine and adjunctive high-dose glycine in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1999;156:145–7.

Heresco-Levy U, Javitt DC, Ermilov M, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of glycine adjuvant therapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 1996;169:610–7.

Javitt DC, Zylberman I, Zukin SR, et al. Amelioration of negative symptoms in schizophrenia by glycine. Am J Psychiatry 1994;151:1234–6.

Rosse RB, Theut SK, Banay-Schwartz M, et al. Glycine adjuvant therapy to conventional neuroleptic treatment in schizophrenia: an open-label, pilot study. Clin Neuropharmacol 1989;12:416–24.



Manowitz P, Gilmour DG, Racevskis J. Low plasma tryptophan levels in recently hospitalized schizophrenics. Biol Psychiatry 1973;6:109–18.

Payne IR, Walsh EM, Whittenburg EJ. Relationship of dietary tryptophan and niacin to tryptophan metabolism in schizophrenics and nonschizophrenics. Am J Clin Nutr 1974;27:565–71.

Gilka L. Schizophrenia, a disorder of tryptophan metabolism. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 1975;258:1–83.

Bowers MB Jr. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoles and behavior after L-tryptophan and pyridoxine administration to psychiatric patients. Neuropharmacology 1970;9:599–604.

Ginkgo Biloba

Zhang XY, Zhou DF, Cao LY, Wu GY. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract added to haloperidol on peripheral T cell subsets in drug-free schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Sep;188(1):12-7. Epub 2006 Aug 12.

Knable MB.  Extract of Ginkgo biloba added to haloperidol was effective for positive symptoms in refractory schizophrenia. Evid Based Ment Health. 2002 Aug;5(3):90.

Zhang XY, Zhou DF, Zhang PY, Wu GY, Su JM, Cao LY. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of extract of Ginkgo biloba added to haloperidol in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001 Nov;62(11):878-83.

Zhou D, Zhang X, Su J, Nan Z, Cui Yet al: The effects of classic antipsychotic haloperidol plus the extract of ginkgo biloba on superoxide dismutase in patients with chronic refractory schizophrenia. Chin Med J (Engl). 1999 Dec;112(12):1093-6.

Zhang XY, Zhou DF, Su JM, Zhang PY. The effect of extract of ginkgo biloba added to haloperidol on superoxide dismutase in inpatients with chronic schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2001 Feb;21(1):85-8.

Mix JA, Crews WD Jr.  A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: neuropsychological findings. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2002 Aug;17(6):267-77.


Vitamin C

Sandyk R, Kanofsky JD. Vitamin C in the treatment of schizophrenia. Int J Neurosci 1993;68:67–71.

Kanofsky JD, Sandyk R. Antioxidants in the treatment of schizophrenia. Int J Neurosci 1992;62:97–100 [letter].

Beauclair L, Vinogradov S, Riney SJ, et al. An adjunctive role for ascorbic acid in the treatment of schizophrenia? J Clin Psychopharmacol 1987;7:282–3 [letter].

Pitt B, Pollitt N. Ascorbic acid and chronic schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 1971;118:227–8.

Grant FW, Cowen MA, Ozerengin MF, Bigelow N. Nutritional requirements in mental illness. I. Ascorbic acid retention in schizophrenia. A reexamination. Biol Psychiatry 1973;5:289–94.

Pitt B. Vitamin C and schizophrenia. Lancet 1974;2:1153–4 [letter].

Suboticanec K, Folnegovic-Smalc V, Turcin R, et al. Plasma levels and urinary vitamin C excretion in schizophrenic patients. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1986;40:421–8.

Suboticanec K, Folnegovic-Smalc V, Korbar M, et al. Vitamin C status in chronic schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 1990;28:959–66.

B-Complex Vitamin

Hawkins DR, Bortin AW, Runyon RP. Orthomolecular psychiatry: niacin and megavitamin therapy. Psychosomatics 1970;11:517–21 .

Autry JH. Workshop on orthomolecular treatment of schizophrenia: a report. Schizophr Bull 1975:94–103.

Hoffer A. Megavitamin B-3 therapy for schizophrenia. Can Psychiatr Assoc J 1971;16:499–504.

Wittenborn JR, Weber ES, Brown M. Niacin in the long-term treatment of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1973;28:308–15.

Newbold HL, Mosher LR. Niacin and the schizophrenic patient. Am J Psychiatry 1970;127:535–6.

37. Petrie WM, Ban TA, Ananth JV. The use of nicotinic acid and pyridoxine in the treatment of schizophrenia. Int Pharmacopsychiatry 1981;16:245–50.

Ananth JV, Ban TA, Lehmann HE. Potentiation of therapeutic effects of nicotinic acid by pyridoxine in chronic schizophrenics. Can Psychiatr Assoc J 1973;18:377–83.

Vaughan K, McConaghy N. Megavitamin and dietary treatment in schizophrenia: a randomized, controlled trial. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 1999;33:84–8.

Sandyk R, Pardeshi R. Pyridoxine improves drug-induced parkinsonism and psychosis in a schizophrenic patient. Int J Neurosci 1990;52:225–32. treatment of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 2000;47:8–21 .

Yamauchi M. Effects of L-dopa and vitamin B6 on electroencephalograms of schizophrenic patients: a preliminary report. Folia Psychiatr Neurol Jpn 1976;30:121–51.

Bucci L. Pyridoxine and schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 1973;122:240 [letter].

Procter A. Enhancement of recovery from psychiatric illness by methylfolate. Br J Psychiatry 1991;159:271–2.

Freeman JM, Finkelstein JD, Mudd SH. Folate-responsive homocystinuria and “schizophrenia.” A defect in methylation due to deficient 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase activity. N Engl J Med 1975;292:491–6.

Folate-responsive homocystinuria and “schizophrenia.”Nutr Rev 1982;40:242–5.



Hall K. Allergy of the nervous system: a review. Ann Allergy 1976;36:49–64 .

Kety SS. Editorial: Dietary factors and schizophrenia. Ann Intern Med 1976;84:745 [editorial].

Peet MNutrition and schizophrenia: an epidemiological and clinical perspective. Nutr Health. 2003;17(3):211-9..

Ross-Smith P, Jenner FA. Diet (gluten) and schizophrenia. J Hum Nutr 1980;34:107–12 .

Dohan FC. Genetic hypothesis of idiopathic schizophrenia: its exorphin connection. Schizophr Bull 1988;14:489–94.

Reichelt KL, Landmark J. Specific IgA antibody increases in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 1995;37:410–3.

Dohan FC, Grasberger JC. Relapsed schizophrenics: earlier discharge from the hospital after cereal-free, milk-free diet. Am J Psychiatry 1973;130:685–8.

Singh MM, Kay SR. Wheat gluten as a pathogenic factor in schizophrenia. Science 1976;191:401–2.

Vlissides DN, Venulet A, Jenner FA. A double-blind gluten-free/gluten-load controlled trial in a secure ward population. Br J Psychiatry 1986;148:447–52.

Davis C. Dietary pathogenesis of schizophrenia: an investigation into the effects of gluten. Nurs Times 1978;74:2020–1.

Potkin SG, Weinberger D, Kleinman J, et al. Wheat gluten challenge in schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry 1981;138:1208–11.

Storms LH, Clopton JM, Wright C. Effects of gluten on schizophrenics. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:323–7.